The structure and characteristics of diamond drill bits

Abstract 1. The overall structure diamond material drill bit is an integrated drill bit. The whole drill bit has no moving parts, mainly including bit body, crown, hydraulic structure (including water eye or nozzle, sink also known as flow channel, chip flute), gauge, The cutting edge (tooth) is five parts. The crown of the diamond drill bit is a drill...

First, the overall structure

        Diamond material drill bit is an integrated drill bit. The whole drill bit has no moving parts. It mainly has bit body, crown, hydraulic structure (including water eye or nozzle, water tank also known as flow channel, chip flute), gauge and cutting edge (tooth). Five parts.

The crown of the diamond drill bit is the working part of the bit cutting rock. The surface (working surface) is set with diamond material cutting teeth and is arranged with a hydraulic structure. The side is the gauge portion (inserted gauge teeth) and the bit body. Connected, made of tungsten carbide carcass or steel material.

The bit body is a steel material body, the upper part is connected with the threaded rod and the drill string, and the lower part is connected with the crown carcass (the steel crown is integrated with the bit body).

The hydraulic structure of diamond material drill bits is divided into two categories. One type is used for natural diamond drill bits and TSP drill bits. The drilling fluid of such drills flows out from the central water hole, and is dispersed through the surface of the drill bit to the working surface of the drill bit to cool, clean and lubricate the cutting teeth, and finally carry the cuttings from the side sink and The flutes flow into the annular space. The other type is used for PDC drill bits. The drilling fluid of such drills flows out of the water eye and is dispersed through various diverting elements to the working face of the drill bit to cool, clean and lubricate the cutting teeth. The position and number of water eyes of the PDC bit depends on the structure of the drill bit.

The diameter-keeping part of the diamond material acts as a righting bit when drilling, and the diameter of the well is not reduced. The method of mounting diamond on the side of the bit is used to achieve the purpose of maintaining the diameter.

Second, the diamond material bit of the cutting material

Diamond bit cutting teeth materials are divided into natural diamond and synthetic diamond. Diamond is a crystal of carbon. Its crystal structure is a regular tetrahedron. The carbon atoms are connected by covalent bonds. The structure is very stable. Typical shapes include cubes, octahedrons and dodecahedrons.

Diamond is the hardest material among the materials known to man, with the strongest compressive strength and the highest wear resistance. Therefore, it is the most ideal material for cutting edges.

However, diamond also has a large weakness as a cutting edge cutting material. First, it is brittle and can cause cracks when subjected to impact loads. Second, its thermal stability is poor. At high temperatures, the diamond burns into carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide (carbonization). In air, between about 455 and 860 ° C, the diamond will appear graphitized combustion; in inert or reducing There is no oxidation in the gas, but at about 1430 ° C, the diamond crystals suddenly burst and become graphite. Therefore, the diamond bit must be designed, manufactured and used to avoid the high impact load of the diamond material and to ensure timely cooling of the diamond cutting teeth.

Third, the status quo of diamond tools

Diamond tools are widely used in geological exploration, stone, machinery, automotive and defense industries. The manufacturing process of abrasive tools, geological drill bits and stone sawing tools for machining has been greatly improved. The products have formed serialization, standardization, complete varieties and specifications, stable product quality, and some products have certain competitiveness in the international market. The vast majority of diamond single crystals are used to make a variety of diamond tools, many of which are available. The diamond sawing tools produced in China have complete specifications and stable quality. According to statistics, in recent years, diamond drilling tools can basically meet the market demand; with the development of the construction industry and the popularity of household air conditioners, for the installation of pipelines and air conditioners and the renovation of old buildings, the demand for diamond thin wall engineering drills for construction The quantity is also increasing. The demand for PDC bits for oil and coal field exploration has also increased accordingly. The quality of diamond composite sheets produced in China is still not enough. It needs further research and improvement, continuously improve product quality, and change the current PDC. The bit depends on the import situation.

In the machining process, diamond grinding wheel, PCD tool cutter, honing stone, dressing roller, wire drawing die, etc. are widely used; the performance of diamond polycrystalline wire drawing die is better than natural diamond die and hard alloy die, so it is applied in the wire drawing industry. Many, especially the emergence of CVD diamond wire drawing dies, provide a reliable drawing tool for controlling wires up to 15 mm. PCD tools are mainly used for the processing of non-ferrous metals and non-metallic materials. It is reported that the demand for PCD tools in the automotive, motorcycle, household appliances, wood processing and general machinery industries has increased year by year. Although various diamond tools produced in China have been widely used in various industries and have achieved remarkable economic benefits, their technical level is still far from that of similar foreign products, mainly in:

1. The entire diamond tool industry lacks unified management and macro-control. Due to the blind development, the layout of the entire diamond tool has been scattered and scattered everywhere. The quality of the products in the tool sales market is unstable, the competition is disorderly, and the price is chaotic.

2. Due to the uncoordinated development of diamond single crystal production and diamond tool production, the development of diamond tools in China lags behind the growth rate of diamond single crystal production, resulting in diamond backlog and slow sales, which affects and restricts the sustainable development of China's diamond industry. The economic benefits of diamond production enterprises have been seriously degraded.

3. The application field of diamond tools is narrow, the product variety is single, the quality is unstable, and some product technical quality standards are more chaotic. There is no unified management standard and standard for product quality inspection and supervision.

4. Diamond tool production equipment and overall technical level are relatively backward, and some advanced new technologies and new technologies are applied slowly.

5. The scale of production enterprises is generally small, production is not concentrated, process technology is poor, market competitiveness is lacking, and economic benefits are not high.

6. Insufficient capital investment in diamond tool production, new product development, and process technology research.

7. In the process of using diamond tools, the use rate of the base material is low, and the steel is seriously wasted; during the use, the abnormal wear, falling off and residual diamond are more, the actual utilization rate of the diamond is lower, and the diamond material is wasted more.

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